HTTP Working GroupM. Thomson
Intended status: Standards TrackDecember 21, 2016
Expires: June 24, 2017

ältere frauen suchen junge männer ch Encrypted Content-Encoding for HTTP


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free dating sites in johannesburg south africa It is sometimes desirable to encrypt the contents of a HTTP message (request or response) so that when the payload is stored (e.g., with a HTTP PUT), only someone with the appropriate key can read it.single de kostenlos mahjong

reiche frauen suchen junge männer schweiz For example, it might be necessary to store a file on a server without exposing its contents to that server. Furthermore, that same file could be replicated to other servers (to make it more resistant to server or network failure), downloaded by clients (to make it available offline), etc. without exposing its contents.single de kostenlos mario

free dating sites through facebook These uses are not met by the use of TLS [RFC5246], since it only encrypts the channel between the client and server.partnersuche quoka tiere

free dating sites like facebook This document specifies a content coding (Section 3.1.2 of [RFC7231]) for HTTP to serve these and other use cases.single de kostenlos legal

free dating site in facebook This content coding is not a direct adaptation of message-based encryption formats - such as those that are described by [RFC4880], [RFC5652], [RFC7516], and [XMLENC] - which are not suited to stream processing, which is necessary for HTTP. The format described here cleaves more closely to the lower level constructs described in [RFC5116].single de kostenlos lernen

free dating sites in luxembourg To the extent that message-based encryption formats use the same primitives, the format can be considered as sequence of encrypted messages with a particular profile. For instance, reiche frauen suchen junge männer explains how the format is congruent with a sequence of JSON Web Encryption [RFC7516] values with a fixed header.frau sucht junge männer

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100 free dating site in luxemburg The “aes128gcm” HTTP content coding indicates that a payload has been encrypted using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) as identified as AEAD_AES_128_GCM in [RFC5116], Section 5.1. The AEAD_AES_128_GCM algorithm uses a 128 bit content encryption dating sites in portugal

free dating sites in new york city Using this content coding requires knowledge of a key. How this key is acquired is not defined in this dating sites in peterborough

free dating sites in west yorkshire The “aes128gcm” content coding uses a single fixed set of encryption primitives. Cipher suite agility is achieved by defining a new content coding scheme. This ensures that only the HTTP Accept-Encoding header field is necessary to negotiate the use of asia dating site

free dating websites in yorkshire The “aes128gcm” content coding uses a fixed record size. The final encoding consists of a header (see free dating sites in pakistan), zero or more fixed size encrypted records, and a partial record. The partial record MUST be shorter than the fixed record size.partnersuche quoka pferde

free dating sites in western new york The record size determines the length of each portion of plaintext that is enciphered, with the exception of the final record, which is necessarily smaller. The record size (“rs”) is included in the content coding header (see partnersuche am bodensee zoover).online dating wien kostenlos

      +-----------+       content is rs octets minus padding
      |   data    |       of between 2 and 65537 octets;
      +-----------+       the last record is smaller
+-----+-----------+       add padding to get rs octets;
| pad |   data    |       the last record contains
+-----+-----------+       up to rs minus 1 octets
+--------------------+    encrypt with AEAD_AES_128_GCM;
|    ciphertext      |    final size is rs plus 16 octets
+--------------------+    the last record is smaller

reiche männer arme frauen AEAD_AES_128_GCM produces ciphertext 16 octets longer than its input plaintext. Therefore, the length of each enciphered record other than the last is equal to the value of the “rs” parameter plus 16 octets. If the final record ends on a record boundary, the encoder MUST append a record that contains contains only padding and is smaller than the full record size. A receiver MUST fail to decrypt if the final record ciphertext is less than 18 octets in size or equal to the record size plus 16 (that is, the size of a full encrypted record). Valid records always contain at least two octets of padding and a 16 octet authentication tag.partnervermittlung in salzburg

free dating sites for seniors over 50 Each record contains a 2 octet padding length field and between 0 and 65535 octets of padding, inserted into a record before the enciphered content. The padding length is a two octet unsigned integer in network byte order; padding is that number of zero-valued octets. A receiver MUST fail to decrypt if any padding octet is non-zero, or a record has more padding than the record size can partnersuche österreich youtube

free dating websites for singles The nonce for each record is a 96-bit value constructed from the record sequence number and the input keying material. Nonce derivation is covered in free dating site in dating site in doha qatar

reiche frauen suchen männer österreich The additional data passed to each invocation of AEAD_AES_128_GCM is a zero-length octet dating sites in quebec

singlebörse ohne premium mitgliedschaft jugendherberge A consequence of this record structure is that range requests [RFC7233] and random access to encrypted payload bodies are possible at the granularity of the record size. Partial records at the ends of a range cannot be decrypted. Thus, it is best if range requests start and end on record boundaries. Note however that random access to specific parts of encrypted data could be confounded by the presence of dating sites in quad cities

partnersuche frauen gratis Selecting the record size most appropriate for a given situation requires a trade-off. A smaller record size allows decrypted octets to be released more rapidly, which can be appropriate for applications that depend on responsiveness. Smaller records also reduce the additional data required if random access into the ciphertext is needed. Applications that depend on being able to pad by arbitrary amounts cannot increase the record size beyond 65537 dating sites in doha qatar

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free dating sites in bay area In order to allow the reuse of keying material for multiple different HTTP messages, a content encryption key is derived for each message. The content encryption key is derived from the “salt” parameter using the HMAC-based key derivation function (HKDF) described in [RFC5869] using the SHA-256 hash algorithm [FIPS180-4].frauen suchen nach männer

free dating sites in my area The value of the “salt” parameter is the salt input to HKDF function. The keying material identified by the “keyid” parameter is the input keying material (IKM) to HKDF. Input keying material is expected to be provided to recipients separately. The extract phase of HKDF therefore produces a pseudorandom key (PRK) as follows:partnersuche quoka quoka

   PRK = HMAC-SHA-256(salt, IKM)

singles ab 50 kostenlos ausdrucken The info parameter to HKDF is set to the ASCII-encoded string “Content-Encoding: aes128gcm” and a single zero octet:partnervermittlung salzburg jobs

   cek_info = "Content-Encoding: aes128gcm" || 0x00
Concatenation of octet sequences is represented by the free dating sites in addis ababa || operator.

100 free dating sites in egypt AEAD_AES_128_GCM requires a 16 octet (128 bit) content encryption key (CEK), so the length (L) parameter to HKDF is 16. The second step of HKDF can therefore be simplified to the first 16 octets of a single HMAC:partnervermittlung deutschland vergleich

   CEK = HMAC-SHA-256(PRK, cek_info || 0x01)

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best free dating site in egypt The nonce input to AEAD_AES_128_GCM is constructed for each record. The nonce for each record is a 12 octet (96 bit) value that is produced from the record sequence number and a value derived from the input keying material.partnersuche 40 plus preisvergleich

free dating site in alexandria egypt The input keying material and salt values are input to HKDF with different info and length parameters.kontakt partnervermittlung salzburg

free dating websites in egypt The length (L) parameter is 12 octets. The info parameter for the nonce is the ASCII-encoded string “Content-Encoding: nonce”, terminated by a a single zero octet:partnervermittlung salzburg kostenlos

   nonce_info = "Content-Encoding: nonce" || 0x00

free online dating sites in egypt The result is combined with the record sequence number - using exclusive or - to produce the nonce. The record sequence number (SEQ) is a 96-bit unsigned integer in network byte order that starts at zero.singlebörse ohne premium mitgliedschaft clipmyhorse

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   NONCE = HMAC-SHA-256(PRK, nonce_info || 0x01) XOR SEQ

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free asian dating sites brisbane This section shows a few examples of the encrypted content dating sites hiv

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totally free dating sites brisbane Here, a successful HTTP GET response has been encrypted. This uses a record size of 4096 and no padding (just the 2 octet padding length), so only a partial record is present. The input keying material is identified by an empty string (that is, the “keyid” field in the header is zero octets in length).virtual sim dating games online free

free dating websites in brisbane The encrypted data in this example is the UTF-8 encoded string “I am the walrus”. The input keying material is the value “B33e_VeFrOyIHwFTIfmesA” (in base64url). The content body contains a single record and is shown here using base64url encoding for presentation reasons.partnervermittlung deutschland usa

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/octet-stream
Content-Length: 54
Content-Encoding: aes128gcm


100 free dating sites in brisbane Note that the media type has been changed to “application/octet-stream” to avoid exposing information about the content. Alternatively (and equivalently), the Content-Type header field can be omitted.partnervermittlung ukraine deutschland

free dating sites brisbane in ipswich Intermediate values for this example (all shown in base64):quoka partnersuche münchen

salt (from header) = sJvlboCWzB5jr8hI_q9cOQ
PRK = MLAQxt_DHjM15cdlyU1oUnjq7TFlzToGTkdRmvvxVBw
CEK = v31u7VGV3soO3wNaMaIdhg
NONCE = XOaygzko98zjUFTJ
plaintext = AABJIGFtIHRoZSB3YWxydXM

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free dating youngstown ohio This example shows the same message with input keying material of “BO3ZVPxUlnLORbVGMpbT1Q”. In this example, the plaintext is split into records of 10 octets each (that is, the “rs” field in the header is 10). The first record includes a single octet of padding. This means that there are 7 octets of message in the first record, and 8 in the second. This causes the end of the content to align with a record boundary, forcing the creation of a third record that contains only two octets of the padding length.partnersuche am bodensee nonnenhorn

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 93
Content-Encoding: aes128gcm


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wie suchen frauen ihre männer aus This mechanism assumes the presence of a key management framework that is used to manage the distribution of keys between valid senders and receivers. Defining key management is part of composing this mechanism into a larger application, protocol, or app kostenlos

free online dating sites in saudi arabia Implementation of cryptography - and key management in particular - can be difficult. For instance, implementations need to account for the potential for exposing keying material on side channels, such as might be exposed by the time it takes to perform a given operation. The requirements for a good implementation of cryptographic algorithms can change over time.rumänische frauen suchen männer

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free dating sites in saudi arabia Encrypting different plaintext with the same content encryption key and nonce in AES-GCM is not safe [RFC5116]. The scheme defined here uses a fixed progression of nonce values. Thus, a new content encryption key is needed for every application of the content coding. Since input keying material can be reused, a unique “salt” parameter is needed to ensure a content encryption key is not reused.deutsche frauen suchen russische männer

free dating sites in arab countries If a content encryption key is reused - that is, if input keying material and salt are reused - this could expose the plaintext and the authentication key, nullifying the protection offered by encryption. Thus, if the same input keying material is reused, then the salt parameter MUST be unique each time. This ensures that the content encryption key is not reused. An implementation SHOULD generate a random salt parameter for every message; a counter could achieve the same result.junge frauen suchen reiche männer

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free dating websites in saudi arabia There are limits to the data that AEAD_AES_128_GCM can encipher. The maximum value for the record size is limited by the size of the “rs” field in the header (see partnervermittlung agentur deutschland), which ensures that the 2^36-31 limit for a single application of AEAD_AES_128_GCM is not reached [RFC5116]. In order to preserve a 2^-40 probability of indistinguishability under chosen plaintext attack (IND-CPA), the total amount of plaintext that can be enciphered MUST be less than 2^44.5 blocks of 16 octets [AEBounds].partnervermittlung deutschland akademiker

100 free dating site in arab If rs is a multiple of 16 octets, this means 398 terabytes can be encrypted safely, including padding and overhead. However, if the record size is not a multiple of 16 octets, the total amount of data that can be safely encrypted is reduced proportionally. The worst case is a record size of 3 octets, for which at most 74 terabytes of plaintext can be encrypted, of which at least two-thirds is padding.partnersuche regensburg kostenlos online

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free online dating site in united arab emirate This mechanism only provides content origin authentication. The authentication tag only ensures that an entity with access to the content encryption key produced the encrypted data.suchen männer frauen wie ihre mutter

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free dating sites in united arab emirates Furthermore, any entity that is able to modify both the Encryption header field and the HTTP message body can replace the contents. Without the content encryption key or the input keying material, modifications to or replacement of parts of a payload body are not possible.russische frauen in deutschland suchen männer

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partnersuche rumänien frauen Because only the payload body is encrypted, information exposed in header fields is visible to anyone who can read the HTTP message. This could expose side-channel information.partnersuche frauen probleme

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welche eigenschaften lieben männer bei frauen There are a number of strategies available to mitigate this threat, depending upon the application’s threat model and the users’ tolerance for leaked information:partnervermittlungen in deutschland

  1. Determine that it is not an issue. For example, if it is expected that all content stored will be “application/json”, or another very common media type, exposing the Content-Type header field could be an acceptable risk.
  2. If it is considered sensitive information and it is possible to determine it through other means (e.g., out of band, using hints in other representations, etc.), omit the relevant headers, and/or normalize them. In the case of Content-Type, this could be accomplished by always sending Content-Type: application/octet-stream (the most generic media type), or no Content-Type at all.
  3. If it is considered sensitive information and it is not possible to convey it elsewhere, encapsulate the HTTP message using the application/http media type (Section 8.3.2 of [RFC7230]), encrypting that as the payload of the “outer” message.

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welche eigenschaften mögen männer bei frauen This mechanism only offers encryption of content; it does not perform authentication or authorization, which still needs to be performed (e.g., by HTTP authentication [RFC7235]).free dating sites in italy

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partnersuche frauen äthiopien Applications using this mechanism need to be aware that the size of encrypted messages, as well as their timing, HTTP methods, URIs and so on, may leak sensitive information.deutsche männer russische frauen

partnersuche frauen über 50 This risk can be mitigated through the use of the padding that this mechanism provides. Alternatively, splitting up content into segments and storing the separately might reduce exposure. HTTP/2 [RFC7540] combined with TLS [RFC5246] might be used to hide the size of individual chat ohne anmeldung und kostenlos

best free dating site in brazil Developing a padding strategy is difficult. A good padding strategy can depend on context. Common strategies include padding to a small set of fixed lengths, padding to multiples of a values, or padding to powers of 2. Even a good strategy can still cause size information to leak if processing activity of a recipient can be observed. This is especially true if the trailing records of a message contain only padding. Distributing non-padding data is recommended to avoid leaking size information.flirt chat ohne anmeldung und kostenlos

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free online dating sites in brazil This memo registers the “aes128gcm” HTTP content coding in the HTTP Content Codings Registry, as detailed in was suchen männer für frauen.was suchen junge männer bei älteren frauen

  • Name: aes128gcm
  • Description: AES-GCM encryption with a 128-bit content encryption key
  • Reference: this specification

was wollen männer von frauen wirklich References

was wollen männer von frauen hören Normative References

Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, U., “was wollen männer über frauen wissen”, March 2012, <frauen aus bernburg suchen männer>.
Bradner, S., “partnersuche quoka nürnberg”, BCP 14, RFC 2119, deutsche männer polnische frauen, March 1997, <polnische frauen suchen deutsche männer kostenlos>.
McGrew, D., “partnervermittlung salzburg qualifikation”, RFC 5116, schweizer frauen suchen deutsche männer, January 2008, <singlebörse kärnten heute>.
Krawczyk, H. and P. Eronen, “free online dating app iphone”, RFC 5869, starke männer starke frauen, May 2010, <chat ohne anmeldung und registrierung ch>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “chat ohne anmeldung und registrierung deutschland”, RFC 7230, sofort chat ohne anmeldung und registrierung, June 2014, <partnersuche ulm kostenlos xp>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “amerikanische männer deutsche frauen”, RFC 7231, partnervermittlung rumänische damen, June 2014, <rumänische partnervermittlung deutschland>.
Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, “partnervermittlung russland+deutschland”, RFC 7515, free dating sites in norway, May 2015, <new free dating sites in germany>.

free dating sites in nairobi Informative References

Luykx, A. and K. Paterson, “free dating sites in nova scotia”, March 2016, <free dating sites in netherlands>.
Callas, J., Donnerhacke, L., Finney, H., Shaw, D., and R. Thayer, “free dating sites in nz”, RFC 4880, free english dating sites in spain, November 2007, <free dating site website>.
Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, “partnersuche für frauen”, RFC 5246, partnersuche für frauen kostenlos, August 2008, <partnersuche für frauen ab 35>.
Housley, R., “partnersuche französische frauen”, STD 70, RFC 5652, frauen über 60 auf partnersuche film, September 2009, <partnersuche für frauen ab 40>.
Fielding, R., Ed., Lafon, Y., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., “partnersuche frauen finnland”, RFC 7233, partnersuche für frauen ab 50, June 2014, <partnersuche für frauen gratis>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “polnische frauen für partnersuche”, RFC 7235, partnersuche regensburg kostenlos youtube, June 2014, <partnervermittlung thailand deutschland>.
Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, “singlebörse ohne premium mitgliedschaft dateformore”, RFC 7516, schwache männer starke frauen, May 2015, <100 free dating sites in bulgaria>.
Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., “tunesische männer deutsche frauen”, RFC 7540, free dating websites berlin, May 2015, <frau sucht männer zum kastrieren>.
Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Hirsch, F., Roessler, T., Imamura, T., Dillaway, B., Simon, E., Yiu, K., and M. Nyström, “free online dating websites in france”, W3C Recommendation REC-xmlenc-core1-20130411, January 2013, <best free dating site in france>.

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100 free dating sites in brazil The “aes128gcm” content coding can be considered as a sequence of JSON Web Encryption (JWE) objects [RFC7516], each corresponding to a single fixed size record that includes leading padding. The following transformations are applied to a JWE object that might be expressed using the JWE Compact Serialization:free local dating site in france

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free dating websites in dubai The following people provided valuable input: Richard Barnes, David Benjamin, Peter Beverloo, JR Conlin, Mike Jones, Stephen Farrell, Adam Langley, John Mattsson, Julian Reschke, Eric Rescorla, Jim Schaad, and Magnus Westerlund.russische frauen reiche männer

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