HTTP Working GroupM. Thomson
Intended status: Standards TrackMarch 2, 2017
Expires: September 3, 2017

singlebörse gratis tirol Encrypted Content-Encoding for HTTP


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www partnersuche ab 50 qm It is sometimes desirable to encrypt the contents of a HTTP message (request or response) so that when the payload is stored (e.g., with a HTTP PUT), only someone with the appropriate key can read it.deleted my online dating profile

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www partnersuche ab 50 fristen These uses are not met by the use of TLS [RFC5246], since it only encrypts the channel between the client and server.partnersuche

türkische singlebörse irland This document specifies a content coding (Section 3.1.2 of [RFC7231]) for HTTP to serve these and other use cases.wie finde ich den richtigen partner im internet

türkische singlebörse italien This content coding is not a direct adaptation of message-based encryption formats - such as those that are described by [RFC4880], [RFC5652], [RFC7516], and [XMLENC] - which are not suited to stream processing, which is necessary for HTTP. The format described here follows more closely to the lower level constructs described in [RFC5116].polnische single frauen kostenlos kennenlernen

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free online dating for marriage This mechanism is likely only a small part of a larger design that uses content encryption. How clients and servers acquire and identify keys will depend on the use case. In particular, a key management system is not described.albanische frau zum heiraten

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free christian dating for marriage The key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].warum manche keinen partner finden

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100 free dating for marriage The “aes128gcm” HTTP content coding indicates that a payload has been encrypted using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) as identified as AEAD_AES_128_GCM in [RFC5116], Section 5.1. The AEAD_AES_128_GCM algorithm uses a 128 bit content encryption key.singleseiten kostenlos xp

türkische singlebörse vergleich Using this content coding requires knowledge of a key. How this key is acquired is not defined in this document.fischkopf partnerbörse zoosk

suche deutsche frau zum heiraten The “aes128gcm” content coding uses a single fixed set of encryption primitives. Cipher suite agility is achieved by defining a new content coding scheme. This ensures that only the HTTP Accept-Encoding header field is necessary to negotiate the use of encryption.fischkopf partnerbörse zürich

www partnersuche ab 50 gdb The “aes128gcm” content coding uses a fixed record size. The final encoding consists of a header (see senioren singlebörsen) and zero or more fixed size encrypted records; the final record can be smaller than the record size.senioren singlebörsen kostenlos

www partnersuche ab 50 golf The record size determines the length of each portion of plaintext that is enciphered. The record size (“rs”) is included in the content coding header (see singleseiten kostenlos für frauen).single seiten die kostenlos sind

+-----------+             content
|   data    |             any length up to rs-17 octets
+-----------+-----+       add a delimiter octet (0x01 or 0x02)
|   data    | pad |       then 0x00-valued octets to rs-16
+-----------+-----+       (or less on the last record)
+--------------------+    encrypt with AEAD_AES_128_GCM;
|    ciphertext      |    final size is rs;
+--------------------+    the last record can be smaller

free indian chat room without registration chat dude AEAD_AES_128_GCM produces ciphertext 16 octets longer than its input plaintext. Therefore, the unencrypted content of each record is shorter than the record size by 16 octets. Valid records always contain at least a padding delimiter octet and a 16 octet authentication tag.singleseiten kostenlos deutschland

ich finde meinen partner nicht anziehend Each record contains a single padding delimiter octet followed by any number of zero octets. The last record uses a padding delimiter octet set to the value 2, all other records have a padding delimiter octet value of 1.singlebörse augsburg qis

singlebörsen österreich gratis kreditkarte On decryption, the padding delimiter is the last non-zero valued octet of the record. A decrypter MUST fail if the record contains no non-zero octet. A decrypter MUST fail if the last record contains a padding delimiter with a value other than 2 or if any record other than the last contains a padding delimiter with a value other than 1.singleseiten für alleinerziehende kostenlos

albanien frauen heiraten The nonce for each record is a 96-bit value constructed from the record sequence number and the input keying material. Nonce derivation is covered in singleseiten kostenlos community kostenlos xp

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partnersuche horoskop heute A consequence of this record structure is that range requests [RFC7233] and random access to encrypted payload bodies are possible at the granularity of the record size. Partial records at the ends of a range cannot be decrypted. Thus, it is best if range requests start and end on record boundaries. Note however that random access to specific parts of encrypted data could be confounded by the presence of padding.singleseiten kostenlos runterladen

south africa mobile chat rooms Selecting the record size most appropriate for a given situation requires a trade-off. A smaller record size allows decrypted octets to be released more rapidly, which can be appropriate for applications that depend on responsiveness. Smaller records also reduce the additional data required if random access into the ciphertext is needed.partnervermittlung julia quinn

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seriöse singlebörsen schweiz In order to allow the reuse of keying material for multiple different HTTP messages, a content encryption key is derived for each message. The content encryption key is derived from the “salt” parameter using the HMAC-based key derivation function (HKDF) described in [RFC5869] using the SHA-256 hash algorithm [FIPS180-4].partnersuche kostenlos in berlin heute

online avatar chat rooms The value of the “salt” parameter is the salt input to HKDF function. The keying material identified by the “keyid” parameter is the input keying material (IKM) to HKDF. Input keying material is expected to be provided to recipients separately. The extract phase of HKDF therefore produces a pseudorandom key (PRK) as follows:singleseiten kostenlos test

   PRK = HMAC-SHA-256(salt, IKM)

free online avatar chat sites The info parameter to HKDF is set to the ASCII-encoded string “Content-Encoding: aes128gcm” and a single zero octet:partnersuche kostenlos in berlin parken

   cek_info = "Content-Encoding: aes128gcm" || 0x00
Concatenation of octet sequences is represented by the singlebörse handicap schweiz || operator.

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   CEK = HMAC-SHA-256(PRK, cek_info || 0x01)

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pakistani chat rooms mix The nonce input to AEAD_AES_128_GCM is constructed for each record. The nonce for each record is a 12 octet (96 bit) value that is derived from the record sequence number, input keying material, and salt.fischkopf singlebörse kostenlos

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he hasn't deleted his online dating profile The length (L) parameter is 12 octets. The info parameter for the nonce is the ASCII-encoded string “Content-Encoding: nonce”, terminated by a a single zero octet:live chatting pakistan rooms

   nonce_info = "Content-Encoding: nonce" || 0x00

deleting your online dating profile The result is combined with the record sequence number - using exclusive or - to produce the nonce. The record sequence number (SEQ) is a 96-bit unsigned integer in network byte order that starts at pakistan chat rooms

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   NONCE = HMAC-SHA-256(PRK, nonce_info || 0x01) XOR SEQ

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free online chat rooms in south africa This section shows a few examples of the encrypted content web chats like chatroulette

partnervermittlung eurodamen erfahrungen Note: All binary values in the examples in this section use base64url encoding [RFC7515]. This includes the bodies of requests. Whitespace and line wrapping is added to fit formatting web chat like chatroulette

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erfahrungen bei singlebörsen Here, a successful HTTP GET response has been encrypted. This uses a record size of 4096 and no padding (just the single octet padding delimiter), so only a partial record is present. The input keying material is identified by an empty string (that is, the “keyid” field in the header is zero octets in length).partnersuche kostenlos in berlin unterwegs

partnersuche de kontakt cc The encrypted data in this example is the UTF-8 encoded string “I am the walrus”. The input keying material is the value “yqdlZ-tYemfogSmv7Ws5PQ” (in base64url). The 54 octet content body contains a single record and is shown here using 71 base64url characters for presentation reasons.singlebörsen schweiz gratis

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/octet-stream
Content-Length: 54
Content-Encoding: aes128gcm


erfahrungen singlebörsen wien Note that the media type has been changed to “application/octet-stream” to avoid exposing information about the content. Alternatively (and equivalently), the Content-Type header field can be omitted.gute singlebörsen schweiz

gratis dating voor ouderen Intermediate values for this example (all shown using base64url):pakistani chat room chat dude

salt (from header) = I1BsxtFttlv3u_Oo94xnmw
PRK = zyeH5phsIsgUyd4oiSEIy35x-gIi4aM7y0hCF8mwn9g
CEK = _wniytB-ofscZDh4tbSjHw
plaintext = SSBhbSB0aGUgd2FscnVzAg

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wo finde ich meine würth partnernummer This example shows the same message with input keying material of “BO3ZVPxUlnLORbVGMpbT1Q”. In this example, the plaintext is split into records of 25 octets each (that is, the “rs” field in the header is 25). The first record includes one 0x00 padding octet. This means that there are 7 octets of message in the first record, and 8 in the second. A key identifier of the UTF-8 encoded string “a1” is also included in the header.partnervermittlung vera bradley

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 73
Content-Encoding: aes128gcm


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free dating site for horse lovers This mechanism assumes the presence of a key management framework that is used to manage the distribution of keys between valid senders and receivers. Defining key management is part of composing this mechanism into a larger application, protocol, or framework.pakistan room chat 4 joy

partnersuche de kontakt aufnehmen Implementation of cryptography - and key management in particular - can be difficult. For instance, implementations need to account for the potential for exposing keying material on side channels, such as might be exposed by the time it takes to perform a given operation. The requirements for a good implementation of cryptographic algorithms can change over time.partnersuche in ukraine russland

ich finde meinen partner sexuell nicht anziehend As a content coding, presence of the “aes128gcm” coding might be transparent to a consumer of a message. Recipients that depend on content origin authentication using this mechanism MUST reject messages that don’t include the “aes128gcm” content coding.partnersuche in ukraine nachrichten

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partnersuche de kontakt email This content encoding is designed to permit the incremental processing of large messages. It also permits random access to plaintext in a limited fashion. The content encoding permits a receiver to detect when a message is chat rooms like chatroulette

bewertung von singlebörsen A partially delivered message MUST NOT be processed as though the entire message was successfully delivered. For instance, a partially delivered message cannot be cached as though it were dating voor senioren

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beste single seiten kostenlos Encrypting different plaintext with the same content encryption key and nonce in AES-GCM is not safe [RFC5116]. The scheme defined here uses a fixed progression of nonce values. Thus, a new content encryption key is needed for every application of the content coding. Since input keying material can be reused, a unique “salt” parameter is needed to ensure a content encryption key is not online avatar chat games

singlebörse schweiz kostenlos telefonieren If a content encryption key is reused - that is, if input keying material and salt are reused - this could expose the plaintext and the authentication key, nullifying the protection offered by encryption. Thus, if the same input keying material is reused, then the salt parameter MUST be unique each time. This ensures that the content encryption key is not reused. An implementation SHOULD generate a random salt parameter for every message; a counter could achieve the same dating sites singlesnet

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free browsing dating sites uk There are limits to the data that AEAD_AES_128_GCM can encipher. The maximum value for the record size is limited by the size of the “rs” field in the header (see south african chat rooms), which ensures that the 2^36-31 limit for a single application of AEAD_AES_128_GCM is not reached [RFC5116]. In order to preserve a 2^-40 probability of indistinguishability under chosen plaintext attack (IND-CPA), the total amount of plaintext that can be enciphered with the key derived from the same input keying material and salt MUST be less than 2^44.5 blocks of 16 octets [AEBounds].south african chat rooms mobile

free dating sites no fees free browsing If the record size is a multiple of 16 octets, this means 398 terabytes can be encrypted safely, including padding and overhead. However, if the record size is not a multiple of 16 octets, the total amount of data that can be safely encrypted is reduced because partial AES blocks are encrypted. The worst case is a record size of 18 octets, for which at most 74 terabytes of plaintext can be encrypted, of which at least half is online south african chat rooms

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free dating site browsing This mechanism only provides content origin authentication. The authentication tag only ensures that an entity with access to the content encryption key produced the encrypted data.ich finde meinen partner nicht mehr attraktiv

partnersuche de kontakt telefon Any entity with the content encryption key can therefore produce content that will be accepted as valid. This includes all recipients of the same HTTP message.www.julia

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singlebörsen test kosten Because only the payload body is encrypted, information exposed in header fields is visible to anyone who can read the HTTP message. This could expose side-channel free dating sites for marriage

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schlechte erfahrungen singlebörsen There are a number of strategies available to mitigate this threat, depending upon the application’s threat model and the users’ tolerance for leaked information:free dating for marriage

  1. Determine that it is not an issue. For example, if it is expected that all content stored will be “application/json”, or another very common media type, exposing the Content-Type header field could be an acceptable risk.
  2. If it is considered sensitive information and it is possible to determine it through other means (e.g., out of band, using hints in other representations, etc.), omit the relevant headers, and/or normalize them. In the case of Content-Type, this could be accomplished by always sending Content-Type: application/octet-stream (the most generic media type), or no Content-Type at all.
  3. If it is considered sensitive information and it is not possible to convey it elsewhere, encapsulate the HTTP message using the application/http media type (Section 8.3.2 of [RFC7230]), encrypting that as the payload of the “outer” message.

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erfahrungen singlebörsen test This mechanism only offers encryption of content; it does not perform authentication or authorization, which still needs to be performed (e.g., by HTTP authentication [RFC7235]).partnersuche in ukraine youtube

online dating für junge leute rabatt This is especially relevant when a HTTP PUT request is accepted by a server; if the request is unauthenticated, it becomes possible for a third party to deny service and/or poison the dating sites chats

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singlebörse in ostfriesland Applications using this mechanism need to be aware that the size of encrypted messages, as well as their timing, HTTP methods, URIs and so on, may leak sensitive information.secret partnersuche osteuropa

türkische singlebörse yapi This risk can be mitigated through the use of the padding that this mechanism provides. Alternatively, splitting up content into segments and storing them separately might reduce exposure. HTTP/2 [RFC7540] combined with TLS [RFC5246] might be used to hide the size of individual messages.partnersuche regensburg umgebung

türkische singlebörse yasni Developing a padding strategy is difficult. A good padding strategy can depend on context. Common strategies include padding to a small set of fixed lengths, padding to multiples of a value, or padding to powers of 2. Even a good strategy can still cause size information to leak if processing activity of a recipient can be observed. This is especially true if the trailing records of a message contain only padding. Distributing non-padding data is recommended to avoid leaking size information.partnervermittlung russische frau youtube

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www partnersuche ab 50 xl This memo registers the “aes128gcm” HTTP content coding in the HTTP Content Codings Registry, as detailed in live chat south africa.single kostenlos kennenlernen englisch

  • Name: aes128gcm
  • Description: AES-GCM encryption with a 128-bit content encryption key
  • Reference: this specification

gratis singlebörsen schweiz flächenmässig References

singlebörsen österreich gratis versand Normative References

National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce, “partnersuche in ukraine”, partnersuche horoskop oktober, August 2015, <singlebörse schweiz kostenlos runterladen>.
Bradner, S., “partnersuche in ukraine quote”, BCP 14, RFC 2119, partnersuche horoskop kostenlos, March 1997, <partnersuche ukraine odessa>.
Yergeau, F., “gratis singlebörsen schweiz kostenlos”, STD 63, RFC 3629, singlebörse schweiz kostenlos youtube, November 2003, <gratis singlebörsen schweiz youtube>.
McGrew, D., “gratis singlebörsen schweiz postbus”, RFC 5116, partnersuche mit horoskop, January 2008, <free dating sites the best>.
Krawczyk, H. and P. Eronen, “gratis singlebörsen schweiz gratis”, RFC 5869, singlebörse gratis linz, May 2010, <singlebörsen in der schweiz>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “singlebörse für senioren”, RFC 7230, singlebörse für senioren österreich, June 2014, <online date chat room>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “partnersuche horoskop indianer”, RFC 7231, ich finde keine frau islam, June 2014, <partnersuche ab 50 akademiker>.
Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, “partnersuche ab 50 at”, RFC 7515, singlebörse schweiz bewertung, May 2015, <beste singlebörsen schweiz>.

singlebörse niederösterreich gratis Informative References

Luykx, A. and K. Paterson, “singlebörse neu gratis”, March 2016, <singlebörse gratis nachrichten>.
Callas, J., Donnerhacke, L., Finney, H., Shaw, D., and R. Thayer, “singlebörse burgenland gratis”, RFC 4880, horoskop für partnersuche, November 2007, <singlebörsen gratis youtube>.
Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, “singlebörse schweiz kostenlos online”, RFC 5246, singlebörse türkische männer, August 2008, <türkische singlebörse test>.
Housley, R., “singlebörse schweiz ch”, STD 70, RFC 5652, türkische singlebörse wien, September 2009, <www partnersuche ab 50 r4>.
Fielding, R., Ed., Lafon, Y., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., “www partnersuche ab 50 recovery”, RFC 7233, singlebörsen gratis vergleich, June 2014, <singlebörse vorarlberg gratis>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “singlebörse gratis graz”, RFC 7235, singlebörse gratis ab 50, June 2014, <singlebörse gratis app>.
Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, “singlebörse gratis at”, RFC 7516, pakistan live chat room video, May 2015, <live pakistani chat rooms>.
Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., “yahoo live pakistani chat room”, RFC 7540, live pakistani chat room without reg, May 2015, <ich finde keine passende frau>.
Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Hirsch, F., Roessler, T., Imamura, T., Dillaway, B., Simon, E., Yiu, K., and M. Nyström, “warum finde ich keine frau für mich”, W3C Recommendation REC-xmlenc-core1-20130411, January 2013, <ich bin 35 und finde keine frau>.

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online web chat like chatroulette The “aes128gcm” content coding can be considered as a sequence of JSON Web Encryption (JWE) objects [RFC7516], each corresponding to a single fixed size record that includes trailing padding. The following transformations are applied to a JWE object that might be expressed using the JWE Compact Serialization:www partnersuche ab 50 mittellang

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live chat room pakistan rawalpindi The following people provided valuable input: Richard Barnes, David Benjamin, Peter Beverloo, JR Conlin, Mike Jones, Stephen Farrell, Adam Langley, James Manger, John Mattsson, Julian Reschke, Eric Rescorla, Jim Schaad, and Magnus chat room pakistan islamabad

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