HTTP Working GroupM. Thomson
Intended status: Standards TrackApril 18, 2017
Expires: October 20, 2017

online dating cold turkey Encrypted Content-Encoding for HTTP


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free dating app 2014 It is sometimes desirable to encrypt the contents of a HTTP message (request or response) so that when the payload is stored (e.g., with a HTTP PUT), only someone with the appropriate key can read it.guter chat ohne anmeldung

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open source dating site script These uses are not met by the use of TLS [RFC5246], since it only encrypts the channel between the client and ohne anmeldung international

open source mobile dating script This document specifies a content coding (Section 3.1.2 of [RFC7231]) for HTTP to serve these and other use cases.icq chat ohne anmeldung

open source dating website script This content coding is not a direct adaptation of message-based encryption formats - such as those that are described by [RFC4880], [RFC5652], [RFC7516], and [XMLENC] - which are not suited to stream processing, which is necessary for HTTP. The format described here follows more closely to the lower level constructs described in [RFC5116].chat ohne anmeldung ipad

online partnersuche im vergleich To the extent that message-based encryption formats use the same primitives, the format can be considered as sequence of encrypted messages with a particular profile. For instance, chat ohne anmeldung iphone explains how the format is congruent with a sequence of JSON Web Encryption [RFC7516] values with a fixed ohne anmeldung ab 50

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single chat tirol kostenlos The “aes128gcm” HTTP content coding indicates that a payload has been encrypted using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) as identified as AEAD_AES_128_GCM in [RFC5116], Section 5.1. The AEAD_AES_128_GCM algorithm uses a 128 bit content encryption key.partnervermittlung mit niveau schweiz

single chat kostenlos test Using this content coding requires knowledge of a key. How this key is acquired is not defined in this document.internationale partnersuche kostenlos xp

beste gratis datingsites nederland The “aes128gcm” content coding uses a single fixed set of encryption primitives. Cipher suite agility is achieved by defining a new content coding scheme. This ensures that only the HTTP Accept-Encoding header field is necessary to negotiate the use of live mail chat help

gratis nederlandse datingsite The “aes128gcm” content coding uses a fixed record size. The final encoding consists of a header (see windows live mail chat) and zero or more fixed size encrypted records; the final record can be smaller than the record size.yuppie partnersuche kostenlos

gratis datingsites nederlands The record size determines the length of each portion of plaintext that is enciphered. The record size (“rs”) is included in the content coding header (see singlereisen deutschland 50plus).best iphone casual dating app

+-----------+             content
|   data    |             any length up to rs-17 octets
+-----------+-----+       add a delimiter octet (0x01 or 0x02)
|   data    | pad |       then 0x00-valued octets to rs-16
+-----------+-----+       (or less on the last record)
+--------------------+    encrypt with AEAD_AES_128_GCM;
|    ciphertext      |    final size is rs;
+--------------------+    the last record can be smaller

volledig gratis datingsites nederland AEAD_AES_128_GCM produces ciphertext 16 octets longer than its input plaintext. Therefore, the unencrypted content of each record is shorter than the record size by 16 octets. Valid records always contain at least a padding delimiter octet and a 16 octet authentication iphone dating apps 2015

türkisch chat ohne anmeldung Each record contains a single padding delimiter octet followed by any number of zero octets. The last record uses a padding delimiter octet set to the value 2, all other records have a padding delimiter octet value of iphone dating apps free

free dating united kingdom On decryption, the padding delimiter is the last non-zero valued octet of the record. A decrypter MUST fail if the record contains no non-zero octet. A decrypter MUST fail if the last record contains a padding delimiter with a value other than 2 or if any record other than the last contains a padding delimiter with a value other than iphone dating apps india

asian girl dating site free The nonce for each record is a 96-bit value constructed from the record sequence number and the input keying material. Nonce derivation is covered in best iphone dating apps iphone dating apps 2012

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best asian girl dating site A consequence of this record structure is that range requests [RFC7233] and random access to encrypted payload bodies are possible at the granularity of the record size. Partial records at the ends of a range cannot be decrypted. Thus, it is best if range requests start and end on record boundaries. Note however that random access to specific parts of encrypted data could be confounded by the presence of dating in bd

asian white girl dating site Selecting the record size most appropriate for a given situation requires a trade-off. A smaller record size allows decrypted octets to be released more rapidly, which can be appropriate for applications that depend on responsiveness. Smaller records also reduce the additional data required if random access into the ciphertext is komplett kostenlos

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vergleich partnervermittlung schweiz kassensturz In order to allow the reuse of keying material for multiple different HTTP messages, a content encryption key is derived for each message. The content encryption key is derived from the “salt” parameter using the HMAC-based key derivation function (HKDF) described in [RFC5869] using the SHA-256 hash algorithm [FIPS180-4].internationale partnersuche kostenlos dresden

vergleich partnervermittlung schweiz kostenlos The value of the “salt” parameter is the salt input to HKDF function. The keying material identified by the “keyid” parameter is the input keying material (IKM) to HKDF. Input keying material is expected to be provided to recipients separately. The extract phase of HKDF therefore produces a pseudorandom key (PRK) as follows:türk chat ohne anmeldung

   PRK = HMAC-SHA-256(salt, IKM)

chat für christen ohne anmeldung The info parameter to HKDF is set to the ASCII-encoded string “Content-Encoding: aes128gcm” and a single zero octet:türkische chat ohne anmeldung

   cek_info = "Content-Encoding: aes128gcm" || 0x00
Concatenation of octet sequences is represented by the single chat stuttgart kostenlos || operator.
The strings used here and in türkce chat ohne anmeldung do not include a terminating 0x00 octet, as is used in some programming languages.

vergleich partnervermittlung schweiz youtube AEAD_AES_128_GCM requires a 16 octet (128 bit) content encryption key (CEK), so the length (L) parameter to HKDF is 16. The second step of HKDF can therefore be simplified to the first 16 octets of a single HMAC:tiny chat ohne anmeldung

   CEK = HMAC-SHA-256(PRK, cek_info || 0x01)

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online dating österreich online The nonce input to AEAD_AES_128_GCM is constructed for each record. The nonce for each record is a 12 octet (96 bit) value that is derived from the record sequence number, input keying material, and single de kostenlos xp

vergleich partnervermittlung schweiz test The input keying material and salt values are input to HKDF with different info and length parameters.bangladeshi online dating site

free dating sites and chatting The length (L) parameter is 12 octets. The info parameter for the nonce is the ASCII-encoded string “Content-Encoding: nonce”, terminated by a a single zero octet:best bangladeshi dating site

   nonce_info = "Content-Encoding: nonce" || 0x00

free dating and chat The result is combined with the record sequence number - using exclusive or - to produce the nonce. The record sequence number (SEQ) is a 96-bit unsigned integer in network byte order that starts at single de wirklich kostenlos

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   NONCE = HMAC-SHA-256(PRK, nonce_info || 0x01) XOR SEQ

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kostenlos anmelden bei skype Here, a successful HTTP GET response has been encrypted. This uses a record size of 4096 and no padding (just the single octet padding delimiter), so only a partial record is present. The input keying material is identified by an empty string (that is, the “keyid” field in the header is zero octets in length).windows live messenger public chat rooms

single männer kostenlos pdf The encrypted data in this example is the UTF-8 encoded string “I am the walrus”. The input keying material is the value “yqdlZ-tYemfogSmv7Ws5PQ” (in base64url). The 54 octet content body contains a single record and is shown here using 71 base64url characters for presentation live messenger chat rooms

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/octet-stream
Content-Length: 54
Content-Encoding: aes128gcm


erfahrungsberichte partnervermittlung osteuropa Note that the media type has been changed to “application/octet-stream” to avoid exposing information about the content. Alternatively (and equivalently), the Content-Type header field can be omitted.good iphone dating apps 2014

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salt (from header) = I1BsxtFttlv3u_Oo94xnmw
PRK = zyeH5phsIsgUyd4oiSEIy35x-gIi4aM7y0hCF8mwn9g
CEK = _wniytB-ofscZDh4tbSjHw
unencrypted data = SSBhbSB0aGUgd2FscnVzAg

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christliche singlebörse ohne anmeldung This example shows the same message with input keying material of “BO3ZVPxUlnLORbVGMpbT1Q”. In this example, the plaintext is split into records of 25 octets each (that is, the “rs” field in the header is 25). The first record includes one 0x00 padding octet. This means that there are 7 octets of message in the first record, and 8 in the second. A key identifier of the UTF-8 encoded string “a1” is also included in the portale ohne anmeldung

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 73
Content-Encoding: aes128gcm


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neue gmail adresse erstellen kostenlos This mechanism assumes the presence of a key management framework that is used to manage the distribution of keys between valid senders and receivers. Defining key management is part of composing this mechanism into a larger application, protocol, or programm ohne anmeldung

christliche singlebörse vergleich Implementation of cryptography - and key management in particular - can be difficult. For instance, implementations need to account for the potential for exposing keying material on side channels, such as might be exposed by the time it takes to perform a given operation. The requirements for a good implementation of cryptographic algorithms can change over time.pferde chat ohne anmeldung

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größte christliche singlebörse As a content coding, a “aes128gcm” content coding might be automatically removed by a receiver in way that is not obvious to the ultimate consumer of a message. Recipients that depend on content origin authentication using this mechanism MUST reject messages that don’t include the “aes128gcm” content coding.zufallschat ohne anmeldung

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singlebörse kostenlos ab 40 cm This content encoding is designed to permit the incremental processing of large messages. It also permits random access to plaintext in a limited fashion. The content encoding permits a receiver to detect when a message is free iphone dating app

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online dating österreich jobs Encrypting different plaintext with the same content encryption key and nonce in AES-GCM is not safe [RFC5116]. The scheme defined here uses a fixed progression of nonce values. Thus, a new content encryption key is needed for every application of the content coding. Since input keying material can be reused, a unique “salt” parameter is needed to ensure a content encryption key is not reused.erfahrung mit singlebörse

partnersuche kostenlos berlin adresse If a content encryption key is reused - that is, if input keying material and salt are reused - this could expose the plaintext and the authentication key, nullifying the protection offered by encryption. Thus, if the same input keying material is reused, then the salt parameter MUST be unique each time. This ensures that the content encryption key is not reused. An implementation SHOULD generate a random salt parameter for every online asian dating

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partnersuche kostenlos berlin kreuzberg There are limits to the data that AEAD_AES_128_GCM can encipher. The maximum value for the record size is limited by the size of the “rs” field in the header (see online dating site called fish), which ensures that the 2^36-31 limit for a single application of AEAD_AES_128_GCM is not reached [RFC5116]. In order to preserve a 2^-40 probability of indistinguishability under chosen plaintext attack (IND-CPA), the total amount of plaintext that can be enciphered with the key derived from the same input keying material and salt MUST be less than 2^44.5 blocks of 16 octets [AEBounds].online dating sites go fish

partnersuche vogtland kostenlos youtube If the record size is a multiple of 16 octets, this means 398 terabytes can be encrypted safely, including padding and overhead. However, if the record size is not a multiple of 16 octets, the total amount of data that can be safely encrypted is reduced because partial AES blocks are encrypted. The worst case is a record size of 18 octets, for which at most 74 terabytes of plaintext can be encrypted, of which at least half is dating sites pof

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kostenlos garage inserieren This mechanism only provides content origin authentication. The authentication tag only ensures that an entity with access to the content encryption key produced the encrypted data.100 free ontario dating sites

kostenlos inserieren bei google Any entity with the content encryption key can therefore produce content that will be accepted as valid. This includes all recipients of the same HTTP message.münchner chat ohne anmeldung registrierung

kostenlos gebrauchtmaschinen inserieren Furthermore, any entity that is able to modify both the Content-Encoding header field and the HTTP message body can replace the contents. Without the content encryption key or the input keying material, modifications to or replacement of parts of a payload body are not possible.ohne anmeldung chat room

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kostenlos gebrauchtwagen inserieren Because only the payload body is encrypted, information exposed in header fields is visible to anyone who can read the HTTP message. This could expose side-channel information.yuppie partnersuche deutschland

kostenlos inserieren gewerblich For example, the Content-Type header field can leak information about the payload body.whatsapp kostenlos herunterladen für iphone 4s

kostenlos inserieren graz There are a number of strategies available to mitigate this threat, depending upon the application’s threat model and the users’ tolerance for leaked information:ist single de kostenlos mahjong

  1. Determine that it is not an issue. For example, if it is expected that all content stored will be “application/json”, or another very common media type, exposing the Content-Type header field could be an acceptable risk.
  2. If it is considered sensitive information and it is possible to determine it through other means (e.g., out of band, using hints in other representations, etc.), omit the relevant headers, and/or normalize them. In the case of Content-Type, this could be accomplished by always sending Content-Type: application/octet-stream (the most generic media type), or no Content-Type at all.
  3. If it is considered sensitive information and it is not possible to convey it elsewhere, encapsulate the HTTP message using the application/http media type (Section 8.3.2 of [RFC7230]), encrypting that as the payload of the “outer” message.

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gratis inserieren kostenlos This mechanism only offers data origin authentication; it does not perform authentication or authorization of the message creator, which could still need to be performed (e.g., by HTTP authentication [RFC7235]).online dating in kentucky

kostenlos inserieren nachmieter gesucht This is especially relevant when a HTTP PUT request is accepted by a server without decrypting the payload; if the request is unauthenticated, it becomes possible for a third party to deny service and/or poison the online dating louisville ky

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kostenlos grundstück inserieren Applications using this mechanism need to be aware that the size of encrypted messages, as well as their timing, HTTP methods, URIs and so on, may leak sensitive information. See for example [NETFLIX] or [CLINIC].canada best online dating sites

partnersuche kostenlos berlin mitte This risk can be mitigated through the use of the padding that this mechanism provides. Alternatively, splitting up content into segments and storing them separately might reduce exposure. HTTP/2 [RFC7540] combined with TLS [RFC5246] might be used to hide the size of individual messages.absolutely free dating sites in usa

hunde chat ohne anmeldung Developing a padding strategy is difficult. A good padding strategy can depend on context. Common strategies include padding to a small set of fixed lengths, padding to multiples of a value, or padding to powers of 2. Even a good strategy can still cause size information to leak if processing activity of a recipient can be observed. This is especially true if the trailing records of a message contain only padding. Distributing non-padding data across records is recommended to avoid leaking size trial internet dating

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hilfe chat ohne anmeldung This memo registers the “aes128gcm” HTTP content coding in the HTTP Content Codings Registry, as detailed in free australian asian online dating ontario

  • Name: aes128gcm
  • Description: AES-GCM encryption with a 128-bit content encryption key
  • Reference: this specification

top iphone dating apps uk References

free dating site local Normative References

National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce, “single chat erfurt kostenlos”, gute single chats kostenlos, August 2015, <single chat room kostenlos>.
Bradner, S., “single chat kostenlos für frauen”, BCP 14, RFC 2119, single chat frauen kostenlos, March 1997, <single chat kostenlos forum>.
Yergeau, F., “single chats for free”, STD 63, RFC 3629, partnervermittlung für reiche schweiz, November 2003, <russische partnervermittlung schweiz>.
McGrew, D., “single charts kostenlos anhören”, RFC 5116, single chat schleswig holstein kostenlos, January 2008, <single chat hessen kostenlos>.
Krawczyk, H. and P. Eronen, “single chat kostenlos hamburg”, RFC 5869, single chat kostenlos hannover, May 2010, <best online dating sites apps>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “online dating sites app”, RFC 7230, free south america dating sites, June 2014, <free south america dating site>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “welcher single chat ist kostenlos”, RFC 7231, partnersuche auf facebook, June 2014, <free dating sites to join>.

free online dating in turkey Informative References

Luykx, A. and K. Paterson, “best canadian online dating website”, March 2016, <best canadian online dating sites>.
Miller, B., Huang, L., Joseph, A., and J. Tygar, “single chat baden württemberg kostenlos”, March 2014, <single chat wien kostenlos>.
Reed, A. and M. Kranch, “Identifying HTTPS-Protected Netflix Videos in Real-Time”, Proceedings of the Seventh ACM on Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy - CODASPY '17, welche single chats sind kostenlos, 2017.
Josefsson, S., “new free dating apps 2015”, RFC 4648, singlebörse kostenlos ab 40 zoll, October 2006, <single chat kostenlos ab 18>.
Callas, J., Donnerhacke, L., Finney, H., Shaw, D., and R. Thayer, “single chats kostenlos ab 16”, RFC 4880, single charts kostenlos anmelden, November 2007, <single chat kostenlos anmelden>.
Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, “single chat kostenlos ab 15”, RFC 5246, single charts kostenlos hören, August 2008, <single chat apps kostenlos>.
Housley, R., “single chat kostenlos ab 14”, STD 70, RFC 5652, single chats kostenlos app, September 2009, <single chat 100 prozent kostenlos>.
Fielding, R., Ed., Lafon, Y., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., “free dating site christian”, RFC 7233, free dating site cyprus, June 2014, <loveawake free online dating india gujarat city ahmedabad>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “ist single de kostenlos legal”, RFC 7235, ist single de kostenlos lernen, June 2014, <christliche singles münchen>.
Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, “single männer kostenlos youtube”, RFC 7516, single männer kostenlos runterladen, May 2015, <kostenlos e mail adresse einrichten hotmail>.
Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., “kostenlos email einrichten hotmail”, RFC 7540, kostenlos email adresse hotmail, May 2015, <lego star wars herunterladen kostenlos vollversion>.
Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Hirsch, F., Roessler, T., Imamura, T., Dillaway, B., Simon, E., Yiu, K., and M. Nyström, “single chat kostenlos mv”, W3C Recommendation REC-xmlenc-core1-20130411, January 2013, <single chats münchen kostenlos>.

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hexen chat ohne anmeldung The “aes128gcm” content coding can be considered as a sequence of JSON Web Encryption (JWE) objects [RFC7516], each corresponding to a single fixed size record that includes trailing padding. The following transformations are applied to a JWE object that might be expressed using the JWE Compact Serialization:online dating asian girl

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