QUIC Working GroupJ. Iyengar, Editor
Internet-DraftI. Swett, Editor
Intended status: Standards TrackGoogle
Expires: December 15, 2017June 13, 2017

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valentines day single party chicago This document describes loss detection and congestion control mechanisms for QUIC.christliche partnerbörse kostenlos chip

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singles halloween party chicago Discussion of this draft takes place on the QUIC working group mailing list ([email protected]), which is archived at single alternative vote.alternative vote single transferable vote

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single partys konstanz Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work in progress”.partnersuche komplett kostenlos online

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dating seiten schweiz youtube QUIC is a new multiplexed and secure transport atop UDP. QUIC builds on decades of transport and security experience, and implements mechanisms that make it attractive as a modern general-purpose transport. The QUIC protocol is described in [QUIC-TRANSPORT].single party valentinstag hamburg

single party in essen steele QUIC implements the spirit of known TCP loss recovery mechanisms, described in RFCs, various Internet-drafts, and also those prevalent in the Linux TCP implementation. This document describes QUIC congestion control and loss recovery, and where applicable, attributes the TCP equivalent in RFCs, Internet-drafts, academic papers, and/or TCP implementations.single party valentinstag mannheim

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ü30 single party essen The words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “SHOULD”, and “MAY” are used in this document. It’s not shouting; when they are capitalized, they have the special meaning defined in [RFC2119].top 10 dating sites for college students

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single party essen heute All transmissions in QUIC are sent with a packet-level header, which includes a packet sequence number (referred to below as a packet number). These packet numbers never repeat in the lifetime of a connection, and are monotonically increasing, which makes duplicate detection trivial. This fundamental design decision obviates the need for disambiguating between transmissions and retransmissions and eliminates significant complexity from QUIC’s interpretation of TCP loss detection mechanisms.online dating portale hypertension

single kochkurs oberhausen Every packet may contain several frames. We outline the frames that are important to the loss detection and congestion control machinery below.good online dating greetings

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single party lübeck Readers familiar with TCP’s loss detection and congestion control will find algorithms here that parallel well-known TCP ones. Protocol differences between QUIC and TCP however contribute to algorithmic differences. We briefly describe these protocol differences below.jewish single events boston

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single events lübeck TCP conflates transmission sequence number at the sender with delivery sequence number at the receiver, which results in retransmissions of the same data carrying the same sequence number, and consequently to problems caused by “retransmission ambiguity”. QUIC separates the two: QUIC uses a packet sequence number (referred to as the “packet number”) for transmissions, and any data that is to be delivered to the receiving application(s) is sent in one or more streams, with stream offsets encoded within STREAM frames inside of packets that determine delivery order.jewish single events chicago

single kochkurs krefeld QUIC’s packet number is strictly increasing, and directly encodes transmission order. A higher QUIC packet number signifies that the packet was sent later, and a lower QUIC packet number signifies that the packet was sent earlier. When a packet containing frames is deemed lost, QUIC rebundles necessary frames in a new packet with a new packet number, removing ambiguity about which packet is acknowledged when an ACK is received. Consequently, more accurate RTT measurements can be made, spurious retransmissions are trivially detected, and mechanisms such as Fast Retransmit can be applied universally, based only on packet number.single party stuttgart 2016

single party krefeld königsburg This design point significantly simplifies loss detection mechanisms for QUIC. Most TCP mechanisms implicitly attempt to infer transmission ordering based on TCP sequence numbers - a non-trivial task, especially when TCP timestamps are not available.how to delete all chats on fb

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single party krefeld QUIC ACKs contain information that is equivalent to TCP SACK, but QUIC does not allow any acked packet to be reneged, greatly simplifying implementations on both sides and reducing memory pressure on the sender.single party hamburg 2013

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single partys fulda QUIC supports up to 256 ACK ranges, opposed to TCP’s 3 SACK ranges. In high loss environments, this speeds recovery.single party hamburg 2014

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single kochkurs fulda QUIC ACKs explicitly encode the delay incurred at the receiver between when a packet is received and when the corresponding ACK is sent. This allows the receiver of the ACK to adjust for receiver delays, specifically the delayed ack timer, when estimating the path RTT. This mechanism also allows a receiver to measure and report the delay from when a packet was received by the OS kernel, which is useful in receivers which may incur delays such as context-switch latency before a userspace QUIC receiver processes a received packet.single events erlangen

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single kochen fulda QUIC uses a combination of ack information and alarms to detect lost packets. An unacknowledged QUIC packet is marked as lost in one of the following ways:single party silvester 2014 nürnberg

  • A packet is marked as lost if at least one packet that was sent a threshold number of packets (kReorderingThreshold) after it has been acknowledged. This indicates that the unacknowledged packet is either lost or reordered beyond the specified threshold. This mechanism combines both TCP’s FastRetransmit and FACK mechanisms.
  • If a packet is near the tail, where fewer than kReorderingThreshold packets are sent after it, the sender cannot expect to detect loss based on the previous mechanism. In this case, a sender uses both ack information and an alarm to detect loss. Specifically, when the last sent packet is acknowledged, the sender waits a short period of time to allow for reordering and then marks any unacknowledged packets as lost. This mechanism is based on the Linux implementation of TCP Early Retransmit.
  • If a packet is sent at the tail, there are no packets sent after it, and the sender cannot use ack information to detect its loss. The sender therefore relies on an alarm to detect such tail losses. This mechanism is based on TCP’s Tail Loss Probe.
  • If all else fails, a Retransmission Timeout (RTO) alarm is always set when any retransmittable packet is outstanding. When this alarm fires, all unacknowledged packets are marked as lost.
  • Instead of a packet threshold to tolerate reordering, a QUIC sender may use a time threshold. This allows for senders to be tolerant of short periods of significant reordering. In this mechanism, a QUIC sender marks a packet as lost when a packet larger than it is acknowledged and a threshold amount of time has passed since the packet was sent.
  • Handshake packets, which contain STREAM frames for stream 0, are critical to QUIC transport and crypto negotiation, so a separate alarm period is used for them.

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singlekochen göttingen Constants used in loss recovery are based on a combination of RFCs, papers, and common practice. Some may need to be changed or negotiated in order to better suit a variety of environments.single party silvester 2014 mannheim

kMaxTLPs (default 2):
Maximum number of tail loss probes before an RTO fires.
kReorderingThreshold (default 3):
Maximum reordering in packet number space before FACK style loss detection considers a packet lost.
kTimeReorderingFraction (default 1/8):
Maximum reordering in time space before time based loss detection considers a packet lost. In fraction of an RTT.
kMinTLPTimeout (default 10ms):
Minimum time in the future a tail loss probe alarm may be set for.
kMinRTOTimeout (default 200ms):
Minimum time in the future an RTO alarm may be set for.
kDelayedAckTimeout (default 25ms):
The length of the peer’s delayed ack timer.
kDefaultInitialRtt (default 100ms):
The default RTT used before an RTT sample is taken.

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single partys göttingen Variables required to implement the congestion control mechanisms are described in this section.good online dating photos

Multi-modal alarm used for loss detection.
The number of times the handshake packets have been retransmitted without receiving an ack.
The number of times a tail loss probe has been sent without receiving an ack.
The number of times an rto has been sent without receiving an ack.
The last packet number sent prior to the first retransmission timeout.
The time the most recent packet was sent.
The most recent RTT measurement made when receiving an ack for a previously unacked packet.
The smoothed RTT of the connection, computed as described in [RFC6298]
The RTT variance, computed as described in [RFC6298]
The largest delta between the largest acked retransmittable packet and a packet containing retransmittable frames before it’s declared lost.
The reordering window as a fraction of max(smoothed_rtt, latest_rtt).
The time at which the next packet will be considered lost based on early transmit or exceeding the reordering window in time.
An association of packet numbers to information about them, including a number field indicating the packet number, a time field indicating the time a packet was sent, and a bytes field indicating the packet’s size. sent_packets is ordered by packet number, and packets remain in sent_packets until acknowledged or lost.

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single kochkurs göttingen At the beginning of the connection, initialize the loss detection variables as follows:single party erfurt 2014

   handshake_count = 0
   tlp_count = 0
   rto_count = 0
   if (UsingTimeLossDetection())
     reordering_threshold = infinite
     time_reordering_fraction = kTimeReorderingFraction
     reordering_threshold = kReorderingThreshold
     time_reordering_fraction = infinite
   loss_time = 0
   smoothed_rtt = 0
   rttvar = 0
   largest_sent_before_rto = 0
   time_of_last_sent_packet = 0

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good online dating pics After any packet is sent, be it a new transmission or a rebundled transmission, the following OnPacketSent function is called. The parameters to OnPacketSent are as follows:single party erfurt 26.12

  • packet_number: The packet number of the sent packet.
  • is_retransmittable: A boolean that indicates whether the packet contains at least one frame requiring reliable deliver. The retransmittability of various QUIC frames is described in [QUIC-TRANSPORT]. If false, it is still acceptable for an ack to be received for this packet. However, a caller MUST NOT set is_retransmittable to true if an ack is not expected.
  • sent_bytes: The number of bytes sent in the packet.

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 OnPacketSent(packet_number, is_retransmittable, sent_bytes):
   time_of_last_sent_packet = now;
   sent_packets[packet_number].packet_number = packet_number
   sent_packets[packet_number].time = now
   if is_retransmittable:
     sent_packets[packet_number].bytes = sent_bytes

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taking good online dating pictures When an ack is received, it may acknowledge 0 or more packets.single party nürnberg 2013

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     // If the largest acked is newly acked, update the RTT.
     if (sent_packets[ack.largest_acked]):
       latest_rtt = now - sent_packets[ack.largest_acked].time
       if (latest_rtt > ack.ack_delay):
         latest_rtt -= ack.delay
     // Find all newly acked packets.
     for acked_packet in DetermineNewlyAckedPackets():


     // Based on {{RFC6298}}.
     if (smoothed_rtt == 0):
       smoothed_rtt = latest_rtt
       rttvar = latest_rtt / 2
       rttvar = 3/4 * rttvar + 1/4 * (smoothed_rtt - latest_rtt)
       smoothed_rtt = 7/8 * smoothed_rtt + 1/8 * latest_rtt

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single party bodensee When a packet is acked for the first time, the following OnPacketAcked function is called. Note that a single ACK frame may newly acknowledge several packets. OnPacketAcked must be called once for each of these newly acked packets.single party nürnberg löwensaal

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single events bodensee If this is the first acknowledgement following RTO, check if the smallest newly acknowledged packet is one sent by the RTO, and if so, inform congestion control of a verified RTO, similar to F-RTO [RFC5682]single party nürnberg 2016

single events essen Pseudocode for OnPacketAcked follows:single party nürnberg terminal90

     // If a packet sent prior to RTO was acked, then the RTO
     // was spurious.  Otherwise, inform congestion control.
     if (rto_count > 0 &&
         acked_packet_number > largest_sent_before_rto)
     handshake_count = 0
     tlp_count = 0
     rto_count = 0

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singles party johannesburg 2014 QUIC loss detection uses a single alarm for all timer-based loss detection. The duration of the alarm is based on the alarm’s mode, which is set in the packet and timer events further below. The function SetLossDetectionAlarm defined below shows how the single timer is set based on the alarm mode.single events koblenz

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singles party johannesburg The initial flight has no prior RTT sample. A client SHOULD remember the previous RTT it observed when resumption is attempted and use that for an initial RTT value. If no previous RTT is available, the initial RTT defaults to 200ms.single kochkurs koblenz

jewish singles events johannesburg Endpoints MUST retransmit handshake frames if not acknowledged within a time limit. This time limit will start as the largest of twice the rtt value and MinTLPTimeout. Each consecutive handshake retransmission doubles the time limit, until an acknowledgement is received.single party neubrandenburg apart

silvester single party 2014 freiburg Handshake frames may be cancelled by handshake state transitions. In particular, all non-protected frames SHOULD be no longer be transmitted once packet protection is available.single party silvester münchen

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partnersuche elite de filme Tail loss probes [LOSS-PROBE] and retransmission timeouts [RFC6298] are an alarm based mechanism to recover from cases when there are outstanding retransmittable packets, but an acknowledgement has not been received in a timely manner.single party silvester frankfurt

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single kochkurs oesterreich Early retransmit [RFC5827] is implemented with a 1/4 RTT timer. It is part of QUIC’s time based loss detection, but is always enabled, even when only packet reordering loss detection is enabled.single party köln

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partnersuche erfolglos dict Pseudocode for SetLossDetectionAlarm follows:single party köln 24.12

    if (retransmittable packets are not outstanding):

    if (handshake packets are outstanding):
      // Handshake retransmission alarm.
      if (smoothed_rtt == 0):
        alarm_duration = 2 * kDefaultInitialRtt
        alarm_duration = 2 * smoothed_rtt
      alarm_duration = max(alarm_duration, kMinTLPTimeout)
      alarm_duration = alarm_duration * (2 ^ handshake_count)
    else if (loss_time != 0):
      // Early retransmit timer or time loss detection.
      alarm_duration = loss_time - now
    else if (tlp_count < kMaxTLPs):
      // Tail Loss Probe
      if (retransmittable_packets_outstanding = 1):
        alarm_duration = 1.5 * smoothed_rtt + kDelayedAckTimeout
        alarm_duration = kMinTLPTimeout
      alarm_duration = max(alarm_duration, 2 * smoothed_rtt)
      // RTO alarm
      alarm_duration = smoothed_rtt + 4 * rttvar
      alarm_duration = max(alarm_duration, kMinRTOTimeout)
      alarm_duration = alarm_duration * (2 ^ rto_count)

    loss_detection_alarm.set(now + alarm_duration)

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partnersuche erfolglos de QUIC uses one loss recovery alarm, which when set, can be in one of several modes. When the alarm fires, the mode determines the action to be performed.online dating site in bangalore

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     if (handshake packets are outstanding):
       // Handshake retransmission alarm.
     else if (loss_time != 0):
       // Early retransmit or Time Loss Detection
     else if (tlp_count < kMaxTLPs):
       // Tail Loss Probe.
       // RTO.
       if (rto_count == 0)
         largest_sent_before_rto = largest_sent_packet


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single kochkurs ludwigshafen Packets in QUIC are only considered lost once a larger packet number is acknowledged. DetectLostPackets is called every time an ack is received. If the loss detection alarm fires and the loss_time is set, the previous largest acked packet is supplied.singles events queensland

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single party ludwigshafen The receiver MUST ignore unprotected packets that ack protected packets. The receiver MUST trust protected acks for unprotected packets, however. Aside from this, loss detection for handshake packets when an ack is processed is identical to other packets.single party mainz 2014

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single partys ludwigshafen DetectLostPackets takes one parameter, acked, which is the largest acked packet.single party mainz 7 grad

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     loss_time = 0
     lost_packets = {}
     delay_until_lost = infinite
     if (time_reordering_fraction != infinite):
       delay_until_lost =
         (1 + time_reordering_fraction) * max(latest_rtt, smoothed_rtt)
     else if (largest_acked.packet_number == largest_sent_packet):
       // Early retransmit alarm.
       delay_until_lost = 9/8 * max(latest_rtt, smoothed_rtt)
     foreach (unacked < largest_acked.packet_number):
       time_since_sent = now() - unacked.time_sent
       packet_delta = largest_acked.packet_number - unacked.packet_number
       if (time_since_sent > delay_until_lost):
       else if (packet_delta > reordering_threshold)
       else if (loss_time == 0 && delay_until_lost != infinite):
         loss_time = now() + delay_until_lost - time_since_sent

     // Inform the congestion controller of lost packets and
     // lets it decide whether to retransmit immediately.
     if (!lost_packets.empty())
       foreach (packet in lost_packets)

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single party basel 2015 The majority of constants were derived from best common practices among widely deployed TCP implementations on the internet. Exceptions follow.single party kassel 2013

single party basel 2013 A shorter delayed ack time of 25ms was chosen because longer delayed acks can delay loss recovery and for the small number of connections where less than packet per 25ms is delivered, acking every packet is beneficial to congestion control and loss recovery.single party kassel 2015

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single events ludwigsburg QUIC begins every connection in slow start and exits slow start upon loss. While in slow start, QUIC increases the congestion window by the number of acknowledged bytes when each ack is processed.single party erfurt 2016

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single kochkurs ludwigsburg Recovery is a period of time beginning with detection of a lost packet. It ends when all packets outstanding at the time recovery began have been acknowledged or lost. During recovery, the congestion window is not increased or decreased.single party neuss

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beste dating apps kostenlos Constants used in congestion control are based on a combination of RFCs, papers, and common practice. Some may need to be changed or negotiated in order to better suit a variety of environments.single party münchen ray club

kDefaultMss (default 1460 bytes):
The default max packet size used for calculating default and minimum congestion windows.
kInitialWindow (default 10 * kDefaultMss):
Default limit on the amount of outstanding data in bytes.
kMinimumWindow (default 2 * kDefaultMss):
Default minimum congestion window.
kLossReductionFactor (default 0.5):
Reduction in congestion window when a new loss event is detected.

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The sum of the size in bytes of all sent packets that contain at least one retransmittable frame, and have not been acked or declared lost.
Maximum number of bytes in flight that may be sent.
The packet number after which QUIC will no longer be in recovery.
Slow start threshold in bytes. When the congestion window is below ssthresh, it grows by the number of bytes acknowledged for each ack.

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single party osnabrück 2013 At the beginning of the connection, initialize the loss detection variables as follows:single party münchen freitag

   congestion_window = kInitialWindow
   bytes_in_flight = 0
   end_of_recovery = 0
   ssthresh = infinite

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     if (acked_packet.packet_number < end_of_recovery):
     if (congestion_window < ssthresh):
       congestion_window += acket_packets.bytes
       congestion_window +=
           acked_packets.bytes / congestion_window

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     largest_lost_packet = lost_packets.last()
     // Start a new recovery epoch if the lost packet is larger
     // than the end of the previous recovery epoch.
     if (end_of_recovery < largest_lost_packet.packet_number):
       end_of_recovery = largest_sent_packet
       congestion_window *= kLossReductionFactor
       congestion_window = max(congestion_window, kMinimumWindow)
       ssthresh = congestion_window

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     congestion_window = kMinimumWindow

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single party nürnberg erlangen QUIC sends a packet if there is available congestion window and sending the packet does not exceed the pacing rate.single party oldenburg 2013

single party bonn TimeToSend returns infinite if the congestion controller is congestion window limited, a time in the past if the packet can be sent immediately, and a time in the future if sending is pacing limited.single party oldenburg 2014

     if (bytes_in_flight + packet_size > congestion_window)
       return infinite
     return time_of_last_sent_packet +
         (packet_size * smoothed_rtt) / congestion_window

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single events owl References

silvester single party oldenburg Normative References

Iyengar, J., Ed. and M. Thomson, Ed., “QUIC: A UDP-Based Multiplexed and Secure Transport”, Internet-Draft draft-ietf-quic-transport-latest (work in progress).
Bradner, S., “silvester single party 2013 oldenburg”, BCP 14, RFC 2119, fischkopf single party oldenburg, March 1997, <single party oldenburg 2016>.

ü30 single party oldenburg Informative References

Dukkipati, N., Cardwell, N., Cheng, Y., and M. Mathis, “single party freiburg 2015”, Internet-Draft draft-dukkipati-tcpm-tcp-loss-probe-01 (work in progress), February 2013.
Sarolahti, P., Kojo, M., Yamamoto, K., and M. Hata, “single party freiburg 2014”, RFC 5682, silvester single party österreich, September 2009, <kronehit single party graz>.
Allman, M., Avrachenkov, K., Ayesta, U., Blanton, J., and P. Hurtig, “single party graz 2016”, RFC 5827, silvester single party graz, May 2010, <partnersuche landkreis rosenheim cops>.
Paxson, V., Allman, M., Chu, J., and M. Sargent, “dating seiten schweiz local”, RFC 6298, dating seiten schweiz luzern, June 2011, <singlebörsen österreich ohne anmeldung>.
Henderson, T., Floyd, S., Gurtov, A., and Y. Nishida, “partner suchen im internet im3”, RFC 6582, valentinstag single party heidelberg, April 2012, <single party heidelberg 2013>.

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  • Integrate F-RTO (#544, #409)
  • Add congestion control (#545, #395)
  • Require connection abort if a skipped packet was acknowledged (#415)
  • Simplify RTO calculations (#142, #417)

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  • Overview added to loss detection
  • Changes initial default RTT to 100ms
  • Added time-based loss detection and fixes early retransmit
  • Clarified loss recovery for handshake packets
  • Fixed references and made TCP references informative

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  • Improved description of constants and ACK behavior

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  • Adopted as base for draft-ietf-quic-recovery
  • Updated authors/editors list
  • Added table of contents

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