Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)M. Thomson
Request for Comments: 8188Mozilla
Category: Standards TrackJune 2017
ISSN: 2070-1721

dating portal komplett kostenlos Encrypted Content-Encoding for HTTP

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canada free dating site 100 Copyright © 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights to initiate conversation on online dating

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single männer über 40 chords It is sometimes desirable to encrypt the contents of an HTTP message (request or response) so that when the payload is stored (e.g., with an HTTP PUT), only someone with the appropriate key can read canadian singles dating sites

singlebörsen vergleich c date seriös For example, it might be necessary to store a file on a server without exposing its contents to that server. Furthermore, that same file could be replicated to other servers (to make it more resistant to server or network failure), downloaded by clients (to make it available offline), etc., without exposing its canada dating site

single männer über 40 wissen These uses are not met by the use of Transport Layer Security (TLS) [RFC5246], since it only encrypts the channel between the client and canada dating site without credit card

singlebörsen vergleich c date vergleich This document specifies a content coding (see free canadian dating sites of [RFC7231]) for HTTP to serve these and other use canada dating site without payment

singlebörsen vergleich c date meinung This content coding is not a direct adaptation of message-based encryption formats -- such as those that are described by [RFC4880], [RFC5652], [RFC7516], and [XMLENC]. Those formats are not suited to stream processing, which is necessary for HTTP. The format described here follows more closely to the lower-level constructs described in [RFC5116].gute singlebörse kostenlos erfahrungen

singlebörsen vergleich c date meinungen To the extent that message-based encryption formats use the same primitives, the format can be considered to be a sequence of encrypted messages with a particular profile. For instance, best way to start conversation on dating sites explains how the format is congruent with a sequence of JSON Web Encryption [RFC7516] values with a fixed header.single in münster

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single männer über 40 kennen The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here.partnervermittlung ohne registrierung kostenlos

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free singles sites fish The "aes128gcm" HTTP content coding indicates that a payload has been encrypted using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) as identified as AEAD_AES_128_GCM in [RFC5116], dating seiten test kostenlos. The AEAD_AES_128_GCM algorithm uses a 128-bit content-encryption to chat up a girl on a dating site

singlebörsen vergleich c date kostenlos Using this content coding requires knowledge of a key. How this key is acquired is not defined in this to chat on dating website

singlebörsen vergleich c date kosten The "aes128gcm" content coding uses a single fixed set of encryption primitives. Cipher agility is achieved by defining a new content-coding scheme. This ensures that only the HTTP Accept-Encoding header field is necessary to negotiate the use of to chat with a woman on a dating site

singlebörsen vergleich c date ideen The "aes128gcm" content coding uses a fixed record size. The final encoding consists of a header (see how to chat with a girl on a dating site) and zero or more fixed-size encrypted records; the final record can be smaller than the record size.partnervermittlung zoosk impressum

polnische partnervermittlung lippstadt The record size determines the length of each portion of plaintext that is enciphered. The record size ("rs") is included in the content-coding header (see singlebörsen komplett kostenlos xp).free text dating websites

+-----------+             content
|   data    |             any length up to rs-17 octets
+-----------+-----+       add a delimiter octet (0x01 or 0x02)
|   data    | pad |       then 0x00-valued octets to rs-16
+-----------+-----+       (or less on the last record)
+--------------------+    encrypt with AEAD_AES_128_GCM;
|    ciphertext      |    final size is rs;
+--------------------+    the last record can be smaller

partnervermittlung polen lippstadt AEAD_AES_128_GCM produces ciphertext 16 octets longer than its input plaintext. Therefore, the unencrypted content of each record is shorter than the record size by 16 octets. Valid records always contain at least a padding delimiter octet and a 16-octet authentication tag.totally free text dating sites

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single männer über 40 lyrics On decryption, the padding delimiter is the last non-zero-valued octet of the record. A decrypter MUST fail if the record contains no non-zero octet. A decrypter MUST fail if the last record contains a padding delimiter with a value other than 2 or if any record other than the last contains a padding delimiter with a value other than 1.gute singlebörse kostenlos niedersachsen

partnervermittlung bern youtube The nonce for each record is a 96-bit value constructed from the record sequence number and the input-keying material. Nonce derivation is covered in partnervermittlung zoosk seiten im test online

facebook partnerbörse zürich The additional data passed to each invocation of AEAD_AES_128_GCM is a zero-length octet sequence.partnersuche de wirklich kostenlos chip

facebook partnerbörse zoosk A consequence of this record structure is that range requests [RFC7233] and random access to encrypted payload bodies are possible at the granularity of the record size. Partial records at the ends of a range cannot be decrypted. Thus, it is best if range requests start and end on record boundaries. However, note that random access to specific parts of encrypted data could be confounded by the presence of padding.singlebörsen komplett kostenlos partnersuche

singlebörsen komplett kostenlos online Selecting the record size most appropriate for a given situation requires a trade-off. A smaller record size allows decrypted octets to be released more rapidly, which can be appropriate for applications that depend on responsiveness. Smaller records also reduce the additional data required if random access into the ciphertext is needed.partnervermittlung zoosk löschen

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kosten partnervermittlung polen In order to allow the reuse of keying material for multiple different HTTP messages, a content-encryption key is derived for each message. The content-encryption key is derived from the "salt" parameter using the HMAC-based key derivation function (HKDF) described in [RFC5869] using the SHA-256 hash algorithm [FIPS180-4].polen partnervermittlung breslau

good dating conversation starters The value of the "salt" parameter is the salt input to the HKDF. The keying material identified by the "keyid" parameter is the input-keying material (IKM) to HKDF. Input-keying material is expected to be provided to recipients separately. The extract phase of HKDF, therefore, produces a pseudorandom key (PRK) as follows:bewertung polnische partnervermittlung

   PRK = HMAC-SHA-256 (salt, IKM)

wir zwei partnervermittlung kosten The info parameter to HKDF is set to the ASCII-encoded string "Content-Encoding: aes128gcm" and a single zero octet:beste polnische partnervermittlung

   cek_info = "Content-Encoding: aes128gcm" || 0x00
Concatenation of octet sequences is represented by the single männer über 40 zoll || operator.
The strings used here and in polnische partnervermittlung erfahrung do not include a terminating 0x00 octet, as is used in some programming languages.

single männer über 40 songtext AEAD_AES_128_GCM requires a 16-octet (128-bit) content-encryption key (CEK), so the length (L) parameter to HKDF is 16. The second step of HKDF can, therefore, be simplified to the first 16 octets of a single HMAC:watch blind dating online megavideo

   CEK = HMAC-SHA-256(PRK, cek_info || 0x01)

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new york city online dating The nonce input to AEAD_AES_128_GCM is constructed for each record. The nonce for each record is a 12-octet (96-bit) value that is derived from the record sequence number, input-keying material, and "salt" dating message replies

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   nonce_info = "Content-Encoding: nonce" || 0x00

polnische frauen partnervermittlung The result is combined with the record sequence number -- using exclusive or -- to produce the nonce. The record sequence number (SEQ) is a 96-bit unsigned integer in network byte order that starts at zero.polnische partnervermittlung de www de

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   NONCE = HMAC-SHA-256(PRK, nonce_info || 0x01) XOR SEQ

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free single muslim dating sites This section shows a few examples of the encrypted-content dating website conversation starters

free single christian dating sites Note: All binary values in the examples in this section use base64 encoding with URL and filename safe alphabet [RFC4648]. This includes the bodies of requests. Whitespace and line wrapping is added to fit formatting sites conversation topics

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facebook partnerbörse ungarn Here, a successful HTTP GET response has been encrypted. This uses a record size of 4096 octets and no padding (just the single-octet padding delimiter), so only a partial record is present. The input-keying material is identified by an empty string (that is, the "keyid" field in the header is zero octets in length).polen frauen partnervermittlung

welche singlebörse ist die beste und kostenlos runterladen The encrypted data in this example is the UTF-8-encoded string "I am the walrus". The input-keying material is the value "yqdlZ-tYemfogSmv7Ws5PQ" (in base64url). The 54-octet content body contains a single record and is shown here using 71 base64url characters for presentation website conversation starters

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/octet-stream
Content-Length: 54
Content-Encoding: aes128gcm


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salt (from header) = I1BsxtFttlv3u_Oo94xnmw
PRK = zyeH5phsIsgUyd4oiSEIy35x-gIi4aM7y0hCF8mwn9g
CEK = _wniytB-ofscZDh4tbSjHw
unencrypted data = SSBhbSB0aGUgd2FscnVzAg

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partnervermittlung mannheim quadrate This example shows the same message with input-keying material of "BO3ZVPxUlnLORbVGMpbT1Q". In this example, the plaintext is split into records of 25 octets each (that is, the "rs" field in the header is 25). The first record includes one 0x00 padding octet. This means that there are 7 octets of message in the first record and 8 in the second. A key identifier of the UTF-8-encoded string "a1" is also included in the best dating sites in europe

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 73
Content-Encoding: aes128gcm


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partnerbörsen test 2012 qualifikation This mechanism assumes the presence of a key management framework that is used to manage the distribution of keys between valid senders and receivers. Defining key management is part of composing this mechanism into a larger application, protocol, or framework.partnerbörse bei facebook

sat1 partnersuche im ausland xtra Implementation of cryptography -- and key management in particular -- can be difficult. For instance, implementations need to account for the potential for exposing keying material on side channels, such as might be exposed by the time it takes to perform a given operation. The requirements for a good implementation of cryptographic algorithms can change over time.single cell conference münster

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how start a conversation on a dating site As a content coding, a "aes128gcm" content coding might be automatically removed by a receiver in a way that is not obvious to the ultimate consumer of a message. Recipients that depend on content-origin authentication using this mechanism MUST reject messages that don't include the "aes128gcm" content coding.partnervermittlung koblenz qis

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welche singlebörse ist die beste und kostenlos youtube This content encoding is designed to permit the incremental processing of large messages. It also permits random access to plaintext in a limited fashion. The content encoding permits a receiver to detect when a message is truncated.partnervermittlung

christian free dating sites in australia A partially delivered message MUST NOT be processed as though the entire message was successfully delivered. For instance, a partially delivered message cannot be cached as though it were complete.polnisch deutsche partnervermittlung

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welche singlebörse ist die beste und kostenlos xp Encrypting different plaintext with the same content-encryption key and nonce in AES-GCM is not safe [RFC5116]. The scheme defined here uses a fixed progression of nonce values. Thus, a new content-encryption key is needed for every application of the content coding. Since input-keying material can be reused, a unique "salt" parameter is needed to ensure that a content-encryption key is not reused.partnervermittlung polen poznan

singlebörsen vergleich c date frauen If a content-encryption key is reused -- that is, if input-keying material and "salt" parameter are reused -- this could expose the plaintext and the authentication key, nullifying the protection offered by encryption. Thus, if the same input-keying material is reused, then the "salt" parameter MUST be unique each time. This ensures that the content-encryption key is not reused. An implementation SHOULD generate a random "salt" parameter for every message.polnische partnervermittlung in polen

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christpart christliche partnersuche osteuropa There are limits to the data that AEAD_AES_128_GCM can encipher. The maximum value for the record size is limited by the size of the "rs" field in the header (see partnervermittlung russische damen), which ensures that the 2^36-31 limit for a single application of AEAD_AES_128_GCM is not reached [RFC5116]. In order to preserve a 2^-40 probability of indistinguishability under chosen plaintext attack (IND-CPA), the total amount of plaintext that can be enciphered with the key derived from the same input-keying material and salt MUST be less than 2^44.5 blocks of 16 octets [AEBounds].russisch deutsche partnervermittlung

christpart christliche partnersuche vergleich If the record size is a multiple of 16 octets, this means that 398 terabytes can be encrypted safely, including padding and overhead. However, if the record size is not a multiple of 16 octets, the total amount of data that can be safely encrypted is reduced because partial AES blocks are encrypted. The worst case is a record size of 18 octets, for which at most 74 terabytes of plaintext can be encrypted, of which at least half is padding.partnervermittlung russland droben

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christpart christliche partnersuche kostenlos This mechanism only provides content-origin authentication. The authentication tag only ensures that an entity with access to the content-encryption key produced the encrypted data.singlebörsen komplett kostenlos singlebörsen

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sat1 partnersuche im ausland youtube Furthermore, any entity that is able to modify both the Content-Encoding header field and the HTTP message body can replace the contents. Without the content-encryption key or the input-keying material, modifications to, or replacement of, parts of a payload body are not app komplett kostenlos

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free match dating website Because only the payload body is encrypted, information exposed in header fields is visible to anyone who can read the HTTP message. This could expose side-channel to have a conversation with a girl on a dating site

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find match free dating site There are a number of strategies available to mitigate this threat, depending upon the application's threat model and the users' tolerance for leaked information:free love dating website

  1. Determine that it is not an issue. For example, if it is expected that all content stored will be "application/json", or another very common media type, exposing the Content-Type header field could be an acceptable risk.
  2. If it is considered sensitive information and it is possible to determine it through other means (e.g., out of band, using hints in other representations, etc.), omit the relevant headers, and/or normalize them. In the case of Content-Type, this could be accomplished by always sending Content-Type: application/octet-stream (the most generic media type), or no Content-Type at all.
  3. If it is considered sensitive information and it is not possible to convey it elsewhere, encapsulate the HTTP message using the application/http media type (see dating komplett kostenlos flirten of [RFC7230]), encrypting that as the payload of the "outer" message.

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free online dating match site This mechanism only offers data-origin authentication; it does not perform authentication or authorization of the message creator, which could still need to be performed (e.g., by HTTP authentication [RFC7235]).gratis online partnersuche osteuropa

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christpart christliche partnersuche cpd Applications using this mechanism need to be aware that the size of encrypted messages, as well as their timing, HTTP methods, URIs and so on, may leak sensitive information. See, for example, [NETFLIX] or [CLINIC].how long should you wait to reply to a message on a dating site

christpart christliche partnersuche ch This risk can be mitigated through the use of the padding that this mechanism provides. Alternatively, splitting up content into segments and storing them separately might reduce exposure. HTTP/2 [RFC7540] combined with TLS [RFC5246] might be used to hide the size of individual to chat online dating tips

free dating site denver colorado Developing a padding strategy is difficult. A good padding strategy can depend on context. Common strategies include padding to a small set of fixed lengths, padding to multiples of a value, or padding to powers of 2. Even a good strategy can still cause size information to leak if processing activity of a recipient can be observed. This is especially true if the trailing records of a message contain only padding. Distributing non-padding data across records is recommended to avoid leaking size long to chat online dating before meeting

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free dating denver co This memo registers the "aes128gcm" HTTP content coding in the "HTTP Content Coding Registry", as detailed in best way to get replies on dating york gay online dating

  • Name: aes128gcm
  • Description: AES-GCM encryption with a 128-bit content-encryption key
  • Reference: this specification

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partnervermittlung traudich messe Normative References

National Institute of Standards and Technology, “preise partnervermittlung polen”, FIPS PUB 180-4, partnervermittlung thueringen journal, August 2015, <how to unblock messages on dating sites>.
Bradner, S., “how to start messages on dating sites”, BCP 14, RFC 2119, how to get more messages on dating sites, March 1997, <how to read messages on dating sites without paying>.
Yergeau, F., “how to send messages on dating sites without paying”, STD 63, RFC 3629, free single dating sites online, November 2003, <best new york online dating>.
McGrew, D., “polnische partnervermittlung stettin”, RFC 5116, partnervermittlung polen swinemünde, January 2008, <partnervermittlung polen siegen>.
Krawczyk, H. and P. Eronen, “free dating sites in denver co”, RFC 5869, free dating in denver colorado, May 2010, <free dating sites like connecting singles>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “how to start chat with girl on dating site”, RFC 7230, partnervermittlung bern helmets, June 2014, <single tanzkurse in münster>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “single wohnung in münster”, RFC 7231, single frauen in münster, June 2014, <single party in münster>.
Leiba, B., “singles in münster kostenlos”, BCP 14, RFC 8174, singles in münster treffen, May 2017, <ukrainische russische partnervermittlung>.

new york dating online Informative References

Luykx, A. and K. Paterson, “free dating sites ottawa canada”, March 2016, <totally free ottawa dating sites>.
Miller, B., Huang, L., Joseph, A., and J. Tygar, “free gay dating site ottawa”, dating komplett kostenlos eteleon, March 2014, <dating komplett kostenlos erstellen>.
Reed, A. and M. Kranch, “Identifying HTTPS-Protected Netflix Videos in Real-Time”, Proceedings of the Seventh ACM on Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy CODASPY '17, single männer mit 40, 2017.
Josefsson, S., “single männer mitte 40”, RFC 4648, free singles websites uk, October 2006, <chat portale österreich ohne registrierung>.
Callas, J., Donnerhacke, L., Finney, H., Shaw, D., and R. Thayer, “single chat österreich ohne registrierung”, RFC 4880, gratis chat österreich ohne registrierung, November 2007, <best free canada dating sites>.
Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, “free canadian dating websites”, RFC 5246, completely free canadian dating sites, August 2008, <dating komplett kostenlos runterladen>.
Housley, R., “free match dating site”, STD 70, RFC 5652, 100 free match dating site, September 2009, <free match dating sites>.
Fielding, R., Ed., Lafon, Y., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., “singlebörsen vergleich c date erfahrungen”, RFC 7233, single männer über 40 text, June 2014, <how to send a message to a girl on dating site>.
Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., “how to send a first message on dating site”, RFC 7235, how to send a message to a guy on a dating site, June 2014, <how to send an opening message on a dating site>.
Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, “singlebörsen vergleich c date gut”, RFC 7516, regionale partnersuche youtube, May 2015, <regionale partnersuche yoga>.
Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., “gratis online partnersuche kostenlos”, RFC 7540, new york free dating sites, May 2015, <singlebörsen vergleich c date preise>.
Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Hirsch, F., and T. Roessler, “dating komplett kostenlos xp”, World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-xmlenc-core1-20130411, April 2013, <singlebörsen vergleich c date widerruf>.

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free speed dating denver co The "aes128gcm" content coding can be considered as a sequence of JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [RFC7516] objects, each corresponding to a single fixed-size record that includes trailing padding. The following transformations are applied to a JWE object that might be expressed using the JWE Compact Serialization:how to get responses on online dating sites

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christpart christliche partnersuche test Where the first line represents the fixed JWE Protected Header, an empty JWE Encrypted Key, and the algorithmically determined JWE Initialization Vector. The second line contains the encoded body, split into JWE Ciphertext and JWE Authentication Tag.single männer über 40 noten

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